The Federation of Malaya Executive Council comprised 7 official and 7 unofficial members. The Federation of Malaya Legislative Council comprised the High Commissioner as the Council President, 14 official and 50 unofficial members representing the Straits Settlements, business groups and all races.
The country served as a buffer between the British and Russian Empires until it won independence from notional British control in A brief experiment in democracy ended in a coup and a communist countercoup.
The Soviet Union invaded in to support the tottering Afghan communist regime, touching off a long and destructive war.
The USSR withdrew in under relentless pressure by internationally supported anti-communist mujahidin rebels. A series of subsequent civil wars saw Kabul finally fall in to the Taliban, a hardline Pakistani-sponsored movement that emerged in to end the country's civil war and anarchy.
A UN-sponsored Bonn Conference in established a process for political reconstruction that included the adoption of a new constitution, a presidential election inand National Assembly elections in Throughout the summer oftheir campaigns disputed the results and traded accusations of fraud, leading to a US-led diplomatic intervention that included a full vote audit as well as political negotiations between the two camps.
However, the world was changing, a fact of which the British were only too well aware. As far as successive British governments of both parties were concerned the policy was still, in theory, to nurse such dependent territories as Aden slowly towards a viable self-government. A BRIEF HISTORY OF MALAYSIA. By Tim Lambert. ANCIENT MALAYA. The first people to live in Malaya were Stone Age hunter-gatherers. They arrived as early as 8, BC. The impact of British rule. The British presence in the region reflected several patterns: direct colonial rule in the Straits Settlements, relatively indirect control in some of the peninsula’s east-coast sultanates, and family or corporate control in heartoftexashop.comless of the political form, however, British rule brought profound changes, transforming the various states socially and.
Despite gains toward building a stable central government, the Taliban remains a serious challenge for the Afghan Government in almost every province. The Taliban still considers itself the rightful government of Afghanistan, and it remains a capable and confident insurgent force despite its last two spiritual leaders being killed; it continues to declare that it will pursue a peace deal with Kabul only after foreign military forces depart.
Akrotiri By terms of the Treaty of Establishment that created the independent Republic of Cyprus, the UK retained full sovereignty and jurisdiction over two areas of almost square kilometers - Akrotiri and Dhekelia.
Albania Albania declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire inbut was conquered by Italy in and occupied by Germany in Communist partisans took over the country in In the early s, Albania ended 46 years of xenophobic communist rule and established a multiparty democracy.
The transition has proven challenging as successive governments have tried to deal with high unemployment, widespread corruption, dilapidated infrastructure, powerful organized crime networks, and combative political opponents.
Albania has made progress in its democratic development since first holding multiparty elections inbut deficiencies remain. Most of Albania's post-communist elections were marred by claims of electoral fraud; however, international observers judged elections to be largely free and fair since the restoration of political stability following the collapse of pyramid schemes in Albania in April received a European Commission recommendation to open EU accession negotiations.
Although Albania's economy continues to grow, it has slowed, and the country is still one of the poorest in Europe.
A large informal economy and a weak energy and transportation infrastructure remain obstacles. Algeria After more than a century of rule by France, Algerians fought through much of the s to achieve independence in Algeria's primary political party, the National Liberation Front FLNwas established in as part of the struggle for independence and has since largely dominated politics.
The Government of Algeria in instituted a multi-party system in response to public unrest, but the surprising first round success of the Islamic Salvation Front FIS in the December legislative elections led the Algerian army to intervene and postpone the second round of elections to prevent what the secular elite feared would be an extremist-led government from assuming power.
Fighting escalated into an insurgency, which saw intense violence fromresulting in overdeaths - many attributed to indiscriminate massacres of villagers by extremists. The government in introduced some political reforms in response to the Arab Spring, including lifting the year-old state of emergency restrictions and increasing women's quotas for elected assemblies, while also increasing subsidies to the populace.
American Samoa Settled as early as B. International rivalries in the latter half of the 19th century were settled by an treaty in which Germany and the US divided the Samoan archipelago.
The US formally occupied its portion - a smaller group of eastern islands with the excellent harbor of Pago Pago - the following year. Andorra The landlocked Principality of Andorra is one of the smallest states in Europe, nestled high in the Pyrenees between the French and Spanish borders.
For years, from toAndorrans lived under a unique coprincipality, ruled by French and Spanish leaders from onward, the French chief of state and the Bishop of Urgell.
Inthis feudal system was modified with the introduction of a modern, constitution; the co-princes remained as titular heads of state, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy.
Andorra has become a popular tourist destination visited by approximately 8 million people each year drawn by the winter sports, summer climate, and duty-free shopping. Andorra has also become a wealthy international commercial center because of its mature banking sector and low taxes.
As part of its effort to modernize its economy, Andorra has opened to foreign investment, and engaged in other reforms, such as advancing tax initiatives aimed at supporting a broader infrastructure.
Although not a member of the EU, Andorra enjoys a special relationship with the bloc that is governed by various customs and cooperation agreements and uses the euro as its national currency.
Angola Angola scores low on human development indexes despite using its large oil reserves to rebuild since the end of a year civil war in Peace seemed imminent in when Angola held national elections, but fighting picked up again in He pushed through a new constitution in Anguilla Colonized by English settlers from Saint Kitts inAnguilla was administered by Great Britain until the early 19th century, when the island - against the wishes of the inhabitants - was incorporated into a single British dependency along with Saint Kitts and Nevis.
Several attempts at separation failed. Intwo years after a revolt, Anguilla was finally allowed to secede; this arrangement was formally recognized inwith Anguilla becoming a separate British dependency. On 7 Septemberthe island suffered extensive damage from Hurricane Irma, particularly to communications and residential and business infrastructure.
Antarctica Speculation over the existence of a "southern land" was not confirmed until the early s when British and American commercial operators and British and Russian national expeditions began exploring the Antarctic Peninsula region and other areas south of the Antarctic Circle.A BRIEF HISTORY OF MALAYSIA.
By Tim Lambert. ANCIENT MALAYA. The first people to live in Malaya were Stone Age hunter-gatherers. They arrived as early as 8, BC.
|Blog Archive||Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. The impact of British rule The British presence in the region reflected several patterns:|
|Official Portal of Malaysia National Archives||Among other things, this cooperation should be conducted with the aims of limiting the influence of communist influence that could jeopardise the political stability within the region.|
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Independence of Singapore. Singapore became part of Malaysia on 16 September following a merger with Malaya, North Borneo, and heartoftexashop.com merger was thought to benefit the economy by creating a common, free market, and to improve Singapore's internal security.
The Formation of the Federation of Malaya - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation .ppt) or view presentation slides online.
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Non-Malay Opposition To The Federation/5(9). Malaysia is a Southeast Asian country located on a strategic sea-lane that exposes it to global trade and foreign culture. An early western account of the area is seen in Ptolemy's book Geographia, which mentions a "Golden Khersonese," now identified as the Malay Peninsula.
Hinduism and Buddhism from India and China dominated early regional history, reaching their peak during the reign of the. However, the world was changing, a fact of which the British were only too well aware. As far as successive British governments of both parties were concerned the policy was still, in theory, to nurse such dependent territories as Aden slowly towards a viable self-government.