Body modification Where do we draw the line between acceptable behaviour and cheating?
Opiummorphineheroinand related synthetics The opiates are unrivalled in their ability to relieve pain. Opium is the dried milky exudate obtained from the unripe seed pods of the opium poppy plant Papaver somniferumwhich grows naturally throughout most of Turkey.
Of the 20 or more alkaloids found in opium, only a few are pharmacologically active. The important constituents of opium are morphine 10 percentpapaverine 1 percentcodeine 0.
Papaverine is pharmacologically distinct from the narcotic agents and is essentially devoid of effects on the central nervous system. Codeine is considerably less potent one-sixth and is obtained from morphine.
Diacetylmorphine—or heroin —was developed from morphine by the Bayer Company of Germany in and is 5 to 10 times as potent as morphine itself.
Opiates are not medically ideal. Tolerance is developed quite rapidly and completely in the more important members of the group, morphine and heroin, and they are highly addictive. In addition, they produce respiratory depression and frequently cause nausea and emesis. As a result, there has been a constant search for synthetic substitutes: These synthetics exhibit a more favourable tolerance factor than the more potent of the opiates, but in being addictive they fall short of an ideal analgesic.
Of this entire series, codeine has the least addiction potential and heroin has the greatest. History of opiates The narcotic and sleep-producing qualities of the poppy have been known to humankind throughout recorded history.
Sumerian records from ancient Mesopotamia to bce refer to the poppy, and medicinal reference to opium is contained in Assyrian medical tablets. The Romans probably learned of opium during their conquest of the eastern Mediterranean. Galen — ce was an enthusiastic advocate of the virtues of opium, and his books became the supreme authority on the subject for hundreds of years.
The art of medicinals was preserved by the Islamic civilization following the decline of the Roman Empire. Opium was introduced by the Arabs to Persia, China, and India. Paracelsus —professor at the University of Basel, introduced laudanum, a tincture of opium.
Le Mort, a professor of chemistry at the University of Leyden —18discovered paregoric, useful for the control of diarrhea, by combining camphor with tincture of opium. There is no adequate comprehensive history of the addictive aspects of opium use in spite of the fact that it has been known since antiquity.
Because there were few alternative therapeutics or painkillers until the 19th century, opium was somewhat of a medical panacea.
Thus, although at least one account, in by a London physician named Jones, spoke of an excessive use of opium, there appears to have been no real history of concern until recent times, and opiates were easily available in the West in the 19th century—for instance, in a variety of patent medicines.
Physicians prescribed them freely, they were easy to obtain without prescription, and they were used by all social classes. At one time the extensive use of these medicines for various gynecological difficulties probably accounted for high addiction rates among women three times the rate among men.
The invention of the hypodermic needle in the midth century and its subsequent use to administer opiates during wartime produced large numbers of addicted soldiers aboutduring the U.
Civil War alone ; it was thought mistakenly that if opiates were administered by vein, no hunger or addiction would develop, since the narcotic did not reach the stomach. By the turn of the 20th century, narcotic use had become a worldwide problem, and various national and international regulatory bodies sought to control opium traffic in China and Southeast Asia.The prevention of performance-enhancing drug use by college athletes is of critical importance to support fair, healthy play, and the NCAA differentiates performance-enhancing drugs from alcohol and other recreational drugs.
The Code of Ethics and Conduct for Sports Coaches is a framework within which to work and is a series of guidelines rather than a set of instructions. Coaches must never advocate or condone the use of prohibited drugs or other banned performance-enhancing substances. Ethics and sport, p.
; MALKIN, K. et al. () A critical. Technically speaking, Drug usage in sport is a method of Cheating, which is not only not allowed, it is also immoral and unethical. Cheating methods have been used by athletes for centuries, although it is only very recently that the problems regarding cheating have been addressed.
Kirk O. Hanson is the executive director of the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics. Matt Savage was a Hackworth Fellow at the Center.
These materials were prepared for the Institute for Sports Law and Ethics, of which the Markkula Center is a partner organization. Ethical issues are also examined by the European Society for Opinion and Marketing Research’s (ESOMR, ) Code of Practice, which sets out researchers’ broad responsibilities (see Appendix ).
Social and ethical issues of drug abuse. There are many social and ethical issues surrounding the use and abuse of drugs. These issues are made complex particularly because of conflicting values concerning drug use within modern societies.